- ABC continuous recording
This is a type of direct observation in which the observer records occurrences of the target behaviors & selected environmental events in the natural routine during a period of time. This information gathered can then be used to form hypotheses of what function may be maintaining the problem behavior. ABC continuous forms have check boxes associated with the Antecedent
, Behavior and Consequence
. This data
can also be used to determine conditional probability
- ABC narrative recording
This is a type of direct observation in which the recording is open-ended. Any antecedent
events or consequences are recorded. Data
is collected only when the behavior of interest is observed. This may be less time consuming than ABC continuous recording
but may not yield as clear hypotheses of the function of the behavior.
- Alternating treatment design
An experimental design that compares two or more treatments/interventions. The results from a functional analysis are graphed using an alternating treatments design.
This is one of the 7 dimensions of behavior analysis! Analytic
means there is a clear demonstration of a functional relation by the manipulation of the intervention
on the behavior. You can say with confidence that the change in behavior is due to your intervention
by reliably producing the same results over and over and ruling out any other causes/variables that might be influencing the behavior.
change that happens prior to the behavior. For example, the doorbell ringing was an antecedent
to the dog barking.
- Antecedent intervention
involves manipulating the environment
prior to a target behavior
occurring. This environmental manipulation increases or decreases the likelihood of someone engaging in a target behavior
. For example, Lucy prepares healthy food for the week on Monday to increase her behavior of eating healthy lunches.
A result that seems to exist by the way it was measured but it does not truly show what was measured or give a clear picture as to what has been measured. We see measurement artifacts when taking discontinuous measurements because we are not measuring every instance of behavior itself- therefore the product of our measurement is an artifact
of the actually behavior that we measured (it seems to exist but is actually just a product of our measuring).
This is a developmental disability that affects social interaction, behavioral
needs, and communication of an individual ranging from mild to severe. Autism
affects an estimated 1 in 54 individuals in the United States. Applied Behavior Analysis is the leading treatment for individuals with Autism
. It is important to note that each individual with autism
presents differently so if you have seen one person with autism
, you have seen one person with autism
- Automatic Reinforcement
This is a type of reinforcement
that does not require someone else to deliver it to you. Your own behavior produces reinforcement
. You can get what you want without anyone's help! #Queen
- Automaticity of Reinforcement
- Aversive Stimulus
An unpleasant or painful stimulus
. Everyone finds different things aversive so we have to be careful to determine individual preferences and dislikes for each client.
- Avoidance contingency
- B. F. Skinner
The man, the myth, the legend. No but seriously, he is a big deal. He is the founder of radical behaviorism and the father of Applied Behavior Analysis.
- Backwards chaining
A behavior chaining procedure where all of the steps in the chain are completed for the learner except for the last one. This allows for the learner to contact reinforcement
faster by completing just the last step before receiving a reward. The teacher then helps the individual progress to independence by completing all but the last two steps for the individual etc. until the learner is performing the whole chain by themselves.
collected before any intervention
is put into place. Baseline data
allows us to observe changes that occur when the intervention
is put in place and helps us compare behavior under its naturally occurring conditions versus our contrived intervention
- Basic schedule of reinforcement
- Behavior Chain
A sequence of responses that have to occur in order to produce a desired outcome. Each step completed serves as conditioned reinforcement
for that step and a discriminative stimulus
for the next step.
- Behavior chain Interruption strategy
A strategy used to interrupt a behavior chain
at a certain step so that another behavior can be performed. We see this used frequently during mand training. We plan these interruptions so that our client has to request what they need.
- Behavior Chain with a limited hold
A behavior chain
that must be completed within a time interval in order to access reinforcement
. Think of dialing a phone number, you have to enter each number correctly and in a certain time period in order for the call to go through.
- Behavior Checklists
Provides a description of the behavior in a checklist format and includes the antecedents and consequences for each behavior. ABC.
- Behavior Contract
Also called a contingency
contract, the behavior contract
is a document that is signed by the contingency
manager and the individual whose behavior is being changed. The contract specifies a target behavior
that needs to be completed and how the individual will receive reinforcement
for completing it satisfactorily. A task record or way of recording the data
on the behavior is also an important component of the contingency
- Behavior Contrast
This is a common side effect of reinforcement
, and extinction
procedures. This describes the effects of a schedule change that increases or decreases the rate
of responding in one schedule of reinforcement
and results in an opposite change of responding in the other schedule of reinforcement
where no intervention
has been put into place. Think about teenagers who are punished severely for swearing at home but do not receive any punishment
when out with peers. Their swearing may decrease drastically under the punishment
condition but do the opposite (increase) around their friends where a different contingency
is in place.
- Behavior Cusp
A Behavior Cusp
is a behavior that when performed, opens up the learner to a whole new world of contingencies for reinforcement
they didn't have access to before they engaged in the behavior. This can lead the individual to display new behaviors or generalize existing repertoires in new ways without explicit teaching. An example of a behavior cusp
is a baby crawling because now they can access new environments- a whole new (dangerous but exciting) world of reinforcers and potential punishers!
This is one of the seven dimensions of ABA. The behavior selected for this dimension must be in need of improvement #socially significant, must be observable and must be measurable.
- Behavioral Momentum
When we implement high-p instructional sequences we are building behavior momentum with our clients. Behavioral momentum
is the idea that we can sometimes see higher rates of behavior when we start by asking someone to complete simple, easy-to-do tasks and building momentum to complete before asking someone to complete a task that they find aversive or are less likely to complete regularly.
This is a type of measurement that measures how rates of responding change over time. This is the root word of acceleration and deceleration. When someone is responding faster their rate
is said to be accelerating and when their rates of responding slow down they are said to decelerate. Celeration
/per unit of time.
- Changing Criterion design
This is a type of experimental design in which some dimension of a behavior is systematically changed through the use of reinforcement
and pre-set criterion changes. We use this type of design to evaluate the effects of an intervention
that is applied in a stepwise pattern for one single behavior.
- CMO-R (Reflexive CMO)
that comes before some kind of painful stimulation or aversive event. Something in the environment
that signals to you things are about to get worse so you better engage in those behaviors you have in the past that prevent that aversive situation to happen.
- CMO-S (Surrogate CMO)
This is when a stimulus
that was previously neutral (meant nothing to you) is paired with another motivating operation
and now that stimulus
itself creates an MO for the person. In the past when you had to go to the bathroom and you saw a restroom sign you were able to go to the bathroom. Now that restroom sign may evoke your behavior of having to urinate even if you don't have to in that moment.
- CMO-T (Transitive CMO)
This is when something in the environment
establishes something else as a reinforcer
or punisher. You may be trying to open a bottle of wine (deprived of wine) and in that moment you really need a wine key to open the wine. Being deprived of wine in that moment and the bottle of wine that cannot be opened easily is a CMO-T that establishes the value of opening the wine with a wine key and evokes behaviors to find the wine key or ask someone for help.
This term means that a person is diagnosed with multiple diagnoses at the same time.
- Conceptually Systematic
One of the seven dimensions of ABA that reminds behavior analysts to always rely on and using the principles of behavior in everything they do. All behavior change plans or interventions must be conceptually systematic
and be able to be explained in terms of the basics of behavior analysis.
- Concurrent schedule of reinforcement
A type of compound schedule of reinforcement
that includes the combination of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement
(FI,FR,VI,VR) for two or more behaviors and the schedules are occurring at the same time. Each schedule has an clear SD (discriminative stimulus)
associated with it. This allows the learner to choose which schedule of reinforcement
they want to allot their responses to. This schedule is associated with matching law
. People tend to choose the schedule that has the most, easiest to access, best type of reinforcement
- Conditional Probability
This is measured using ABC Continuous Recording data
. It is the likelihood that a behavior will occur more under certain antecedents and consequences. It helps us form a hypothesis of what function is maintaining the behavior of interest. Probability range is 0.0 to 1.0. The closer the conditional probability
is to 1.0 the more likely that the behavior will happen with those antecedent
- Conditioned Negative Reinforcer
A variety of reinforcers that have been paired with the removal or postponement of an aversive stimulus
. These have to be learned- we don't come out of the womb sensitive to these reinforcers.
- Conditioned Punishers
Due to a person's learning history different stimuli may function as conditioned punishers
. There is a stimulus-stimulus pairing
procedure that has to occur for this to exist. What may be punishing for one person might actually be reinforcing for another. A conditioned punisher is one that reduces a behavior when it is applied as a consequence
but has to be learned to do so (think about when you first told your dog NO!" for peeing on the rug- it meant nothing to him. After repeated "No!'s paired with other punishers like a gentle nose swat or being sent outside
- Conditioned Reinforcer
In the same way as a conditioned punisher has to be learned, so does a conditioned reinforcer
. This is defined as a stimulus
in the environment
that functions as a reinforcer
due to past experiences. Each person's learning history will result in different conditioned reinforcers.
- Confounding variables
Something that happens as a result of something else. A stimulus
change that follows the behavior of interest. The result of a behavior and can either be good or bad (and might be good for one person but aversive for another).
A rule about a temporal relation between the environment
and behavior. We mostly look at the three-term contingency
(ABC) and the four-term contingency
(MO/SD, A, B, C).
- Contingency Shaped Behavior:
Behavior that is influenced by coming into direct contact with a reinforcer
or punisher. This is the friend you have that doesn't learn from someone just saying not to touch the hot stove; they have to learn by actually touching the stove and contacting the painful punishment
- Contingent Reinforcement or punishment
- Continuous measurement
Measurement procedures in which all instances of behavior or response class
- Continuous reinforcement (CRF)
is provided on every occurrence of the behavior. We use CRF when we are teaching new behaviors and then we fade the schedule of reinforcement
to intermittent reinforcement
to maintain a behavior one it is learned.
A form of measurement that is a simple tally or count
of how many times a behavior occurs.
- Cumulative record
A type of graph invented by Skinner that counts rates of behavior cumulatively over time. There is never a decrease in this type of graph. The steeper the slope in a cumulative record
the high the rate
of responding. When you see a flat line it means there is no responding.
- Cumulative Recorder
The device Skinner invented to measure rates of responding.
are collections of observations and measurements that have been gathered to quantify a phenomenon.This is what we do as behavior analysts. We take data
on behaviors of interest and use that data
to implement interventions. We must continuously monitor and analyze the data
- Dependent group contingency
This is a type of group contingency
is delivered to a group of people contingent on the behavior of one individual or a small group who meets the performance criteria. This is also called the hero procedure
- Dependent Variable
Withholding a reinforcer
in order to make it more valuable. When you deprive yourself of something, it makes you want it more and you will engage in behaviors to access it. Basically when someone is deprived of something they like it creates an establishing motivating operation
(increases the value) and has an evocative (behavior altering) effect on behavior.
- Differential Reinforcement
- Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behaviors (DRA)
This procedure is used to decrease problem behavior by reinforcing appropriate alternative behaviors and withholding reinforcement
for any instance of the problem behavior. It is important to pick an appropriate alternative behavior whose function matches the problem behavior. For example if a child is tantruming to get out of a work assignment, the function would most likely be escape
. We would want to teach them an appropriate behavior that will still allow them to escape
the demand such as handing you a break card or simply saying I want a break." "
- Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates (DRD)
A schedule of reinforcement
is only delivered if the behavior occurs less than a pre set criteria during a pre set interval. This criteria is gradually decreased. This schedule is used to decrease problem behavior.
- Differential Reinforcement of High Rates of Behavior (DRH)
- Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
This schedule of reinforcement
for a behavior that is incompatible with the problem behavior. This means the two behaviors are not able to be emitted at the same time. You can not punch your friend if your hands are in your pocket.
- Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior (DRL)
This schedule of reinforcement
dependent on the response
occurring after a specific time period where there were no occurrences of the behavior. This schedule is used to decrease behaviors by increasing the inter-response time
- Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
This schedule of reinforcement
for the non-occurrence of the problem behavior. Any other behavior can occur during the interval except for the problem behavior.
- Direct Assessments
These are assessments that use direct measurement of the target Behavior
(standardized tests, criterion-referenced assessments, direct observations).
- Discontinuous measurement
- Discrete Train Training (DTT)
A way of teaching developed by Lovas where a teacher prompts a learner to engage in a behavior with the delivery of a clear Sd. The student has an opportunity to respond. There are five steps to each DTT trial.
for the response
(correct or incorrect)
Interval between trials
- Discriminative Stimulus (Sd)
A diagnostic manual to identify Mental Disorders. It is used by a variety of professionals to diagnose and treat individuals who meet the criteria in the manual.
A form of measurement that measures how long a behavior lasts for or extends over time.
A primary verbal operant that has point to point correspondence and formal similarity. Think of repeating the exact word you hear #echo.
- Ecological assessment
This is a type of assessment that gathers information about the client and their environment
in which the live or work and the people they interact with.
One of the seven dimensions of ABA. It is when a behavior change is clinically or socially significant to that person. How much does the behavior have to change for it to affect their life in a positive way.
- Elementary verbal operants:
These are Skinners 6 types of verbal operants which include: Mand, Tact, Echoic
, Intraverbal, Textual, Transcription.
This is when a client engages in behaviors such as wandering off, running or walking away from a designated spot.
Refers to the world around us. Environment
is the place in which behavior functions.
- Establishing Operation (EO)
A particular type of motivating operation
that we use to increase the value of something. We create establishing operations by depriving someone of something they like.
- Event recording
- Evocative Effect
This behavior altering effect is an increase in the current frequency
of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus
, activity, or item in the past. ex: Deprivation
of water increases the current frequency
of behavior that has gained you access to food in the past (opening the fridge, going in a restaurant, or grabbing a snack from your bag).
- Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB):
This is one of the domains of behavior analysis science that began with Skinners publication of The Behavior of Organisms in 1938. This domain focused of respondent and operant behavior
and basic research in a lab.
- Experimental Control
- External Validity
A study is said to have high external validity
when its findings can be replicated and generalized to other settings and with other individuals.
- Extinction Burst:
A rapid burst of responses that occurs when extinction
is first implemented.
- Faulty Stimulus Control
- Fixed Interval
- Fixed Ratio
After a set amount of time goes by reinforcement
is delivered independent of any behavior occurring. Think of NCR!
- Forward chaining
A type of chaining procedure where the learner has to complete the first step of task analysis
independently before moving on to the next step. If the learner does not complete the first step independently the teacher corrects them and prompts them on that step until the get it right then moves on to second step. The learner must then complete step one and step two independently and in that order and so on.
- Free operant
Behaviors that are free to occur at anytime and have a clear beginning and end.
A type of measurement where you just count
., also known as count
. This tells us how often a behavior occurs. We can also use this measurement to determine the rate
- Full Physical Prompt
This is a type of response prompt
that is the most intrusive to the learner because the teacher provides 100% hand over hand or full physical contact to help them emitt the behavior correctly.
- Function Based Definition
This is a group of responses that have the same function on the environment
, even though they topographically look different. For example, one can say attention maintained behaviors" which includes any behaviors that resulted in the individual accessing attention. Ex: yelling out in class
- Functional Analysis (FA)
A functional analysis is the high level
of a functional behavioral
assessment. An FA is conducted to determine the function of a behavior. This is done by contriving situations and testing different conditions. In a traditional FA there are four conditions: play (also known as the control condition), alone condition, contingent escape
condition or demand, and contingent attention condition.
- Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
An assessment that is designed to determine the hypothetical function of the problem behavior. Includes indirect assessments (interviews checklist) and direct assessments
(observations and test).
- Functional Communication Training (FCT)
This is one of the 7 dimensions of ABA. We use the term generalization
within behavior analysis to explain how an individual can engage in a behavior or implement an intervention
across other settings, behaviors, and individuals. For example, if we teach a child to mand for items they need in the classroom, we plan to generalize this behavior to the child's home or play group.
- Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer (GCR)
Also known as GCR. This is a reinforcer
that has been created by being paired with many other unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. GCR do not depend on current establishing operations for it to be an effective reinforcer
. Since they have been used following multiple behaviors in multiple conditions, their effectiveness does not depend on the current MO. Examples: tokens, money, praise, social praise.
- Good Behavior Game
This is an interdependent group contingency
in which a class/group is divided into two or more groups that compete against one another. The team with fewer marks" at the end is the winner of the game and can access the reinforcement
. This is often done in classrooms when a teacher will say
A visual display of data
. In ABA we do many visual analysis of the data
to determine whether our interventions are effective
- Group Contingencies
offered to a group of individuals where a single consequence
(it can be a reinforcer
or punisher) is given based on either the behavior of a person in a group, the behavior of a smaller set of people within the group or the group as a whole.
Improving a person's life by maximizing reinforcers and minimizing punishers.
A decrease in responsiveness when an eliciting stimulus
is presented repeatedly over a short period of time. For example, after a party when you pop the first few balloons you will likely jump at first, but after popping a many balloons over a short period of time, the reaction of jumping decreases.
- Hero procedure
- high probability (high-p) request sequence
An antecedent intervention
in which two to five high probability (easy tasks with a history of compliance) are presented in quick succession before delivering the target (low-probability) demand. We use high-p-low-p request sequences to build behavioral momentum
for ourselves or our learners.
Behavior that is preceded by a model modeling the target behavior
that is controlling the imitative response
. This imitative behavior must have formal similarity to the modeled behavior. The imitated behavior must also be followed closely in time to the modeled behavior.
- Independent Group Contingency
A group contingency
is available for every person individually if they complete the criteria and does not depend on anyone else's behavior. Every man for himself.
- Independent Variable
the IV is the intervention
or treatment that you are using to change a behavior (DV).
- Indirect Assessment
This is a type of assessment that is done during a functional behavior assessment that involves interviews, checklists, and rating scales and is not a direct measure of behavior.
- Indirect Measurement
Occurs when the behavior that is measured is in some way different from the behavior of interest. This is considered less valid than direct measurements.
- Indiscriminable Contingency
This is a contingency
that makes it unclear for the learner to discriminate whether his or her next response
will result in reinforcement
. Analysts use indiscriminable contingencies with learners by using intermittent reinforcement
- Inter-response Time
IRT is the time between the end of one response
and the beginning of another response
- Interdependent Group Contingency
- Internal Validity
- Interobserver Agreement
(IOA) refers to the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events.
This is when the level
of behavior that was exhibited in a previous phase can not occur in a different phase due to the learning history that has taken place. You can not unlearn a behavior such as sight words or riding a bike so we would not use a reversal or withdrawal design
for behaviors that can not be reversed.
- John B. Watson
he is the founder of methodological behaviorism. He focused on the Stimulus
and did not take private events into account when looking at behavior.
- Lag Schedule of reinforcement
This is the amount of time between the delivery of the Discriminative Stimuli (demand) and the start of the behavior.
Value on the vertical axis around which a series of data
- Level System
This is a type of token system that the participant moves up or down levels based on the criteria that is contingent on the behavior.
- Line Graph
The line graph
is based on the Cartesian plane. Points on the graph represent relationships between the dependent and independent variables. Comparisons of data
points reveals the presence or absence of changes in level
, and/or variability of a behavior and behavior analysts use this information for implementing interventions and improving behaviors.
A way to measure the force or intensity of a behavior.
Does the behavior maintain over time even after we are no longer working with our client. This is something you always need to be planning for during and after treatment.
- Matching Law
We see this with concurrent schedules of reinforcement
. When there are two or more schedules occuring at the same time an individual will allocate more responses on the denser schedule of reinforcement
. Behavior goes where reinforcement
- Momentary Time Sample
This is a type of discontinuous measurement
procedure where you check to see if the behavior is occurring only at the end of a predetermined interval.
- Motivating Operation
Motivating operations (MO) are environmental variables that: alter the effectiveness (value altering effect) of some stimulus
, object, or event as a reinforcer
, and. alter the current frequency
of all behavior (Behavior altering effect) that has been reinforced by that stimulus
, object, or event.
- Naive Observer
An observer who has little or no prior information about the event/intervention
/experiment that he or she is observing or the people involved in them. This helps avoid biases.
- Negative Punishment
is where you take away something that someone likes to decrease the future frequency
of a behavior. Some examples are time out, taking away a cellphone, car, or freedom.
- Negative Reinforcement
Teaching is when we use opportunities in the client's natural environment
for teachable moments.
- Non-contingent reinforcement (NCR)
This is the philosophy that all people with disabilities should be able to access all environments without barriers.
- Observer Drift:
An unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over time that results in a measurement error. This happens when the behavior being measured is not clearly operationally defined or the operational definition clarifying what is and what is not the behavior is not reviewed regularly.
- Observer Reactivity
An error in measurement that occurs when someone is watching you take data
The selection of responses by consequences that occurs throughout an organism's lifetime- learning"."
- Operant Behavior
Is a result of an organism's learning history. Behavior that is learned over a lifetime.
- Operant Conditioning
When an individual engages in a inappropriate behavior they are required to engage in a repetitive behavior repeatedly as a punishment
procedure in hopes that the inappropriate behavior will decrease in the future.
This occurs when there is a competing stimulus
in the environment
that prevents an individual from acquiring a skill.
- Parametric Analysis
An experiment designed to determine the effects of different #dosages of the independent variable
being implemented. For example, one can determine what amount of reinforcement
is most effective
at maintaining or increasing target behaviors.
An attitude that involves using or testing simple explanations before moving on to consider more complicated explanations for observed phenomena.
- Partial interval recording
A type of discontinuous measurement
that records that the behavior occurred during an interval if it happens at any point during the interval. This type of measurement overestimates the behavior.
- Percent of occurrence
A derivative measure in which one calculates the number of correct responses over a number of opportunities to get a percentage. Think about pitching a child five baseballs and calculating that their percentage of hits over opportunities is 4(hits)/5(total opportunities) as an example.
- Permanent product
Any behavior that leaves an impact on the environment
and can be recorded after the behavior occurs.
- Philosophic Doubt
Important attitude of skepticism and humility that scientists use to help them question everything and keep looking for better and better solutions or explanations.
- Pivotal Behavior
A behavior-that once mastered in a training/teaching setting- leads the individual to perform new behaviors without having to be explicitly taught.
- Planned activity check (PLACHECK)
A variation of momentary time sampling
that is used for groups. The observer checks to see if the behavior is occurring at the end of predetermined interval for a group of students.
- Planned Ignoring
A function-based treatment for behaviors that are maintained by access to others' attention (in other words, the attention they receive for engaging in the behavior is why" they do it). In this treatment
- Positive Practice Overcorrection
In this consequence
-based strategy, when a student emits a maladaptive behavior, they are then required to perform the alternative acceptable behavior again and again. For example, a student that throws paper on the floor might be required to practice walking to the trash can to throw away trash several times in a row. The intent is to reduce or punish the maladaptive behavior so it occurs less often after the positive practice overcorrection
- Positive Punishment
An operant (learned) behavior contingency
in which a behavior is emitted, something is added to the environment
, and as a result, the behavior is less likely to happen in the future. The positive part means something was added" as a consequence
(like a parent yelling after a kid hits or spraying a cat with a water bottle when they scratch furniture) and the "punishment
" part refers to the decrease in probability that the behavior will be emitted in the future. "
- Positive Reinforcement:
An operant (learned) behavior contingency
in which a behavior is emitted, a stimulus
is added to the environment
, and as a result, the behavior is more likely to happen in the future. Positive is used to mean adding" something when the behavior occurs (such as giving a child a sticker when they clean their room) and reinforcement
refers to the increased probability of that behavior happening again in the future (the kid cleans their room more often as a result of the added sticker). "
The attitude of science which involves assessing how useful an explanation is by looking at whether it produces useful results (Do what works, don't do things that don't work). The pragmatic attitude helps behavior analysts trust their data
and look for interventions that work for each and every individual, rather than relying on default technologies or package treatments that should" work but don't produce valuable outcomes for the clients themselves. "
- Precision teaching
A system of measurement in which behaviors for change are pinpointed/defined exactly, observed and measured frequently and sensitively, graphed on a Standard Celeration Chart
, and analyzed for any changes needed to improve learning for the student. The instructional system is effective
for a huge range of behaviors and learners with and without disabilities or diagnoses.
- Preference assessment
Also known as a stimulus preference assessment
. This refers to a variety of procedures used to determine the stimuli that a person prefers. We do this to determine potential reinforcers.
- Premack principle
This is also known as grandmas law or first/then. You ask asking the individual to engage in a low probability behavior before they can have a high probability behavior or reinforcer
- Procedural fidelity
Also known as treatment integrity
, this is a measure of how reliably a treatment is being delivered as it was designed/written. To calculate procedural fidelity
, write out a list of the steps involved in performing the treatment and record whether each step was being performed correctly. Then, divide the number of correctly performed steps by total number of steps in the task to get a percentage of procedural fidelity
- Progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement
A schedule of delivering reinforcement
in which the number of correct responses required before reinforcer
delivery gradually increases. For example, a student might get a candy completing 3 math problems correctly, then be required to solve 5 math problems correctly for a candy, then seven corrects etc.
One of the main principles of ABA. This is a consequence
following a response
that immediately proceeds it. Punishment
has occured when the future frequency
of the behavior decreases or is eliminated. For example, The child sticks his finger in the outlet and gets shocked. The child no longer sticks his finger in outlets in the future.
A measure of how often behavior occurs over time. Eg. mands per hour, tantrums per day.
- Ratio Strain
This occurs when the schedule of reinforcement
is thinned to quickly and the learner stops responding.
This happens a lot when we as BCBAs come to observe. The clients or people we are observing may behave differently because they are being reactive to our presence.
Reinforcers are stimuli (or stimulus
changes) that, when delivered as a consequence
for a specific response
, have the ability to increase the likelihood of the organism engaging in that response
again in the future.
- Reinforcer assessment
Direct, systematic, test designed to show how effective
/powerful a stimulus
is at increasing behaviors that it follows. Identifies reinforcers by directly observing them used as consequences to increase a particular response
. Three main types- using a concurrent, progressive, or mixed schedule of reinforcement
- Relevance of behavior rule
The principle that states that only behaviors that will actually be relevant (useful and capable of producing reinforcement
) in an individual's real life should be targeted for teaching.
One of the three fundamental properties of measuring behavior. repeatability
refers to whether a response
can be counted again and again over the span of an observation period.
All of the behaviors that a person can do. Everything in your #toolbox
- Respondent Behavior
is an action that an organism produces in response
to the antecedent
stimuli in the environment
alone (it is not selected by consequences) and is typically essential for the organism's survival. Respondent behaviors have been selected by phylogeny because these involuntary" or "reflexive" responses to antecedent
stimuli have created advantages for the species or helped it survive over generations."
- Respondent Conditioning
The process of pairing a stimulus
that naturally elicits a reflexive response
with other stimuli repeatedly until the previously neutral (other) stimuli can elicit the reflexive response
independently. The most common example is Pavlov's dog experiment in which dogs were conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell after the bell was repeatedly paired with the natural antecedent stimulus
of the smell of delicious meat.
- Respondent Extinction
The repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus
in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus
. The conditioned stimulus
gradually loses its ability to elicit the conditioned response
until the conditioned reflex
no longer appears.
A single instance of behavior.
- Response Class
A set of behaviors that look different (have different topographies) but all serve the same purpose for the individual or have the same effect on the environment
. for example, asking nicely or stealing might both be ways for an individual to get access to an item they want so they would be members of the same response class
- Response Cost
procedure that involves taking away a previously earned reinforcer
when maladaptive behavior is emitted.
- Response Generalization
- Response Prompt
stimuli that are added to help an individual respond appropriately to the antecedent stimulus
that will eventually control the response
on its own naturally. response
prompts include physical guidance, modeling, and instructions.
- Restitutional Overcorrection
A positive punishment
procedure in which the individual must replace/fix the environment
to an even better condition than it was when they emitted the damaging or dangerous behavior. If someone throws a book on the floor in the library, they might be required to reshelve all of the books that have been left out in order to punish the book-throwing behavior.
- Reversal design
A reversal design
is a single subject experiment that follows an ABAB"pattern in which the A condition is implemented first
- Rule Governed Behavior
When you do not engage in a certain behavior not because you have come into contact with the contingencies before, but because of a rule you have been told about what could happen if you do engage in that behavior. You may never have gotten a speeding ticket before but if you follow the rules of not speeding you are engaging in rule governed behavior
in the environment
that signals the non-availability of reinforcement
. For example, if you need to go to the bathroom and there is an Out of Order" sign on the door. This signals the non-availability of relieving (negative reinforcement
) yourself in that bathroom."
An abolishing operation in which the individual has engaged in some sort of behavior that temporarily decreased the value of a consequence
as a reinforcer
and temporarily makes the person less likely to engage in behaviors to access that consequence
. Eating six double cheeseburgers would produce satiation
- the individual would probably be less likely to engage in behavior that would help them access more food to eat as a consequence
A way of visually representing problem behavior by the time of day in which it occurs. This can help a clinician identify times of day that may be more likely to be correlated with high rates or especially low rates of problem behavior in a person's day.
- SD (Discriminative Stimulus)
This is a stimulus
that has a history of signaling the availability of reinforcement
. For example, a Starbucks Coffee sign signals the availability of coffee. If you are tired, seeing a Starbucks sign signals the availability of reinforcement
- Self Injurious Behavior
Behavior that an individual produces that has a damaging effect on their body/health/wellbeing. Hitting one's' own head against a hard surface or doing drugs would both be considered self-injurious behaviors.
A process of behavior change in which an individual attempts to modify their own behavior.
The process of measuring and monitoring one's own behavior. This can sometimes produce behavior change without additional intervention
even though the person is technically just counting and recording behavior, not changing the environment
in which it occurs.
- Sequence effect
This is when the effects of an intervention
from one condition carry over into the next condition.
A behavior change procedure in which successive approximations to a final goal/performance are systematically reinforced while less optimal performances are but on extinction
can produce gradual changes in a behavior over time.
- Social validity
is the idea that our procedures, goals, and outcomes must not only be effective
but also must be well-liked and acceptable to the people involved in treatment planning and delivery.
- Socially Mediated
that is socially mediated
is one that is delivered by another human or which requires another human in order for the individual's behavior to contact a relevant reinforcer
. Asking someone to get you a glass of water is likely reinforced by the socially mediated
action of someone else getting you the water- getting the water from a drinking fountain on your own on the other hand, does not require another person and therefore would not be socially mediated
- Socially Valid
A socially valid
treatment plan includes goals, processes, and outcomes which have been evaluated as acceptable to key stakeholders such as the individual, their family, and other professionals.
- Standard celeration chart
The standard celeration chart
is a standardized semi logarithmic chart that has time extending from the left to right on the X axis in an additive fashion while rates of behavior are charted on an exponential/logarithmic scale on the Y axis. This allows the clinician to quickly analyze data
visually and even allows for visual analysis of celeration
- the change in rate
over time- which can be a useful metric when evaluating teaching procedures.
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor skills. The environment
is made up of tons of stimuli. Stimuli can be anything that one can use their 5 senses to experience: something you see, smell, hear, or feel.
- Stimulus class
A group of stimuli that share common elements. They can share formal, functional, or temporal similarities. One example can include a french bulldog, Labrador, and Terrier all falling into the stimulus class
- Stimulus Control
occurs when an operant (learned) behavior is emitted in the presence of certain appropriate antecedent
stimuli and is not emitted when these stimuli are missing or other inappropriate stimuli are present. A child that says dog" in the presence of a chihuahua but does not say "dog" when in the presence of a Maine Coon cat is demonstrating stimulus control
- Stimulus Equivalence
- Stimulus Generalization
- Stimulus Prompt
- Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing
The process of presenting two stimuli at the same time repeatedly until either stimulus
elicits the response
regardless of whether both or one are present.
- Successive approximation
An attempt to perform a task that is slightly better than a previous performance. Successive approximations are an important component to shaping
- Target Behavior
The behavior we are measuring or intervening on for change of increasing or decreasing.
- Task Analysis
A step by step detailed description of all of the behaviors that must occur in order to produce an outcome or final performance. A recipe is typically a task analysis
of how to accomplish a bigger outcome- how to make a complex but delicious dish of food.
A dimension of applied behavior analysis in which procedures are described in enough detail (typically written) so that another person could replicate the procedure exactly.
- Temporal Extent
How long a behavior extends over time. #duration
- Temporal Locus
Where a behavior is located in time. #IRT #Latency
- Terminal Behavior
procedures, the terminal behavior
is the final" performance that is being shaped and taught. It is the ideal version of the behavior that must be emitted before it would be considered "mastered". Often the terminal behavior
is also the version of the behavior that would contact natural reinforcement
if it were emitted outside of the training setting. #IRL"
- The Four Functions of Behavior
The four functions of behavior
describe why someone may engage in any behavior; in other words, why any learned behavior has been selected by its consequences. The four functions traditionally include access to tangibles, access to attention, access to sensory input, and escape
/avoidance. Individuals select/choose behaviors to include in their repertoire
because they serve one or more of these purposes in their life.
- Three Term Contingency
- Time sampling
A continuous measurement
procedure that involves observing when and for how long a behavior occurs in real time.
- Token economy
A token economy
is a system of reinforcement
in which small arbitrary tokens" or stimuli are delivered frequently for adaptive behaviors. The smaller tokens can then be exchanged at certain points in time for more valuable "backup" reinforcers. Think of traditional sticker charts in which students are given small stickers for doing little acts of good throughout the week and can then turn in stickers for prizes at the end of the week. "
- Topographical based definition
Describing the shape and form of a behavior only.
The extent to which the data
measured are measuring the relevant dimension that was intended to be measured.
An emergent relationship that is produced when two other stimulus
relationships have been mastered.Specifically, when an individual is trained that A=B and B=C, the individual can state that A=C without being explicitly taught this third relationship.
- Treatment drift
The gradual (and often accidental) change in how a treatment is implemented over time.
- Treatment Integrity
(also called procedural fidelity
) is a measure of how reliably the steps of a treatment protocol are being implemented by others. It is reported as a percentage of correctly performed steps in the treatment out of the total number of opportunities.
The overall direction taken by a data
path. It is described as increasing (ascending), decreasing (descending), or no trend
(stable). We look at trend
to predict future measures of behavior if we do not change conditions.
- Trials to Criterion
A form of event recording
. It is a derivative measure. It is calculated by measuring the the number of practice opportunities needed for a person to achieve the pre-established criterion.
- Type 1 error
Also known as a false positive result. This is stating that an intervention
worked when in fact it did not.
- Type 2 error
Also known as a false negative result. This is stating that an intervention
did not work when in fact it did.
- Unconditioned Motivating Operation
Also known as UMO. A motivating operation
that does not depend on a learning history. For example deprivation
of food, water, oxygen, activity, sex, and sleep will increase the value of any of these.
- Unconditioned Punisher
change that, when delivered as a consequence
to a behavior, decreases the future probability of that behavior without prior learning experiences (pain is typically considered an unconditioned punisher
- Unconditioned Reinforcer
change that, when delivered as a consequence
to a behavior, increases the probability of that behavior in the future without the individual having had any experience with that consequence
in the past.
The extent to which we are measuring/analyzing what we say we are analyzing. Measurement must be valid before it even matters whether it is also reliable and accurate (although these other two are important features of sound measurement as well!).
- Variable Interval
This is a schedule of reinforcement
that provides reinforcement
for the first correct response
following a predetermined average amount of time. For example, if behavior of completing math problems on a worksheet is reinforced on a VI5 schedule, this means that the child's correct response
following an average of 5 minutes will be reinforced.
- Variable Ratio
A schedule of reinforcement
in which a reinforcer
is delivered after an average number of responses has occurred. For instance, a teacher may reinforce about every 5th time a child raises their hand in class- sometimes giving attention after 3 hand raises, sometimes 7, etc.
- VB MAPP
An assessment developed by Dr. Mark Sundberg and it focuses on the assessment of a students or clients level
of verbal behavior
- Verbal Behavior
describes a unique way of thinking about communication and language from an operant/behavior analytic
perspective. Verbal behavior
was coined by BF Skinner and refers to behaviors which are reinforced by persons in the verbal community that have been specifically trained to provide this type of reinforcement
. This is a different way of thinking about what is verbal" and what is "Nonverbal" because the topography
- Whole Interval Recording
A type of discontinuous measurement
where you only mark that a behavior occurs during an interval if it occurs for the entire interval. This underestimates behavior.
- Withdrawal Design